According to what rules are the types of tires classified




When it comes to the types of tires, there are actually many ways to divide them: some are classified by vehicle type, some are classified by purpose, some are classified by size, some are classified by pattern, and some are classified by structure.

Classification by car type

Tires are classified according to vehicle types and can be roughly divided into 8 types. Namely: PC-car tires; LT-light truck tires; TB-truck and bus tires; AG-agricultural vehicle tires; OTR-engineering vehicle tires; ID-industrial vehicle tires; AC-aircraft tires; MC-motorcycle tires.

Classification by tire use

Tyres are classified by use, including truck tires, passenger tires and mine tires. In addition to the size of the tire on the sidewall, the number of layers must also be marked. But what I need to tell you here is that the number of layers of a truck tire does not refer to its actual number of layers, but refers to a tire with a high-strength material cord to make a carcass, and its load performance is equivalent to making a carcass with a cotton cord. The number of tire plies. This is because the cotton cord is the earliest used to make the carcass cord, therefore, the international practice is to cotton cord layer as the basis for indicating the number of tire layers. At different levels, the load capacity of the tire is different. Even tires of the same specification have different load capacities because of their different levels. Therefore, tires of different levels cannot be used on the same axle, otherwise, it will be dangerous under high-speed driving and load. For example, the 900-20 tires (level 16) used for liberation vehicles cannot be used on the same axle as the 900-20 tires (level 14), because they have different levels and different loads, and they are prone to danger after mixing.

Light radial truck tires for light trucks or vans must add a letter "C" after the tire model to distinguish them from radial tires for cars. Such as: Jinbei van tire 185SR14C, where the "C" means that this tire is a light truck tire. The American standard stipulates that the tires used for passenger cars should be represented by the letter "P" in front of the tire specifications. For example: P215/75R15 tires for Cherokee, where the "P" means that this tire is a passenger tire. There are many drivers who do not understand the meaning of the word "P" and blindly believe in it. They think that American cars must use tires with "P". Therefore, they dare not use tires without the word "P" when changing tires. Make some jokes. Some tire dealers, after encountering drivers with this mentality, sell tires with the word "P" at a high price. In fact, the word "P" is only a regulation in the United States. For example, the 185/70R14 tire produced by Shanghai Huili Tire Factory in China is to be exported to the United States for supporting the Tianba car produced by Ford Factory. Then, according to the regulations of the United States, the word "P" should be added in front of the 185/70R14 tire produced by Shanghai Huili Tire Factory to show that this tire is a passenger car tire. Therefore, when you change tires, don't be fooled by the word "P. Instead, the "C" word. You should pay attention, and if your car is a light truck, you must insist on no "C" tires. As mentioned earlier, the Jinbei van uses radial 185SR14C tires, while the Audi car also uses radial 185SR14 tires. Judging from the specifications and models of the tires, there is no difference, but it is because there is a "C" on the 185SR14C tires used in the Jinbei van, while the 185SR14 tires used in Audi cars do not have this "C. Therefore, their air pressure, load, etc. are very different. Once a light truck is replaced with a tire without the word "C", it is necessary to measure whether the tire can carry the weight of the vehicle and the goods expected to be carried. If the limited carrying capacity of the tire is less than the weight of the vehicle and the quality of the goods to be carried, You must not use it, or you must know when carrying passengers or objects. Otherwise, it is like installing four time bombs on your car. I don't know when the load exceeds the tire limit. After the speed reaches a certain level, vicious accidents such as tire blowout and rollover will occur. Therefore, please pay special attention to the majority of drivers and friends. If your car needs to use tires with the word "C", it is best not to let the word "C" go.

In addition, the light truck tire is sometimes indicated by "LT" in front of or behind the tire model. For example: LT215/75R15 and 145R12LT (Shandong triangle) and other tires, where the "LT" also refers to this tire as a light truck tire. Here I would like to remind the majority of drivers that this is also a situation that I often encounter in my work: some drivers of vans and passenger-loan double-row minivans, in order to drive comfortably and safely, often replace the bias tires with radial vacuum tires. From the perspective of bias tires and radial vacuum tires, there is no doubt that vacuum tires are much safer, but you must consider whether your car needs heavy loads, if you want to load, be sure to change the kind of tires with "C" or "LT. In addition, you must also understand the interchangeability of radial tires and bias tires. That is to say, if you want to change the bias tires used in the original car to radial tires, please do not change them indiscriminately, otherwise it will affect the performance of the car.

Classification by tire size

Tires are classified according to size. Generally, they refer to tires with a cross-sectional width of 17in (inches, 1in = 25.4mm) or more. This type of tire is a giant tire; tires with a cross-sectional width of 17in or less and more than 10in are large tires; Tires with a cross-sectional width of less than 10in are small and medium-sized tires.

Classification by tire pattern

There are many types of tires classified by pattern, but they can be roughly divided into five types:

① straight groove pattern, also called ordinary pattern. This pattern has excellent stability, small rotation resistance, low noise, especially excellent drainage performance, and is not easy to slip laterally. The reason why it is called ordinary pattern is relative to off-road pattern and mud snow pattern. In fact, there are many kinds of ordinary patterns, because each large tire manufacturer has its own laboratory and tire testing field, where countless engineers and technicians study patterns. However, in the course of the study, the benevolent see benevolence, the wise see wisdom, some patterns focus on tranquility and comfort, some patterns focus on waterproof and non-slip, some patterns focus on grip, while some patterns focus on small fluctuation resistance and fuel saving. Therefore, although it is only a narrow tread, there are ten thousand changes, which can really be described as "a world of flowers between square inches". Moreover, every large manufacturer is constantly introducing new patterns every year.

② Horizontal groove pattern. The driving force, braking force and traction of the transverse groove pattern are particularly excellent, and its wear resistance is excellent. Therefore, it is very suitable for engineering vehicles such as bulldozers and excavators, but the maneuverability and drainage performance of the transverse groove pattern are poor.

③ Vertical and horizontal groove pattern. The vertical and horizontal groove pattern is also called a comprehensive pattern. It has the advantages of both the vertical groove and the horizontal groove pattern. Therefore, it is also more suitable for off-road vehicles such as Jeep, such as the 750-16 tires used by the original factory of Sanling Jeep in Japan. This kind of vertical and horizontal groove pattern.

④ Mud snow pattern. Mud snow pattern, as the name implies, refers to the pattern specially designed for the use of mud and snow. It is represented by the letters "M S", "M" referring to mud and "s" referring to snow. Such tires are generally directly "M" "s" rust engraved on the sidewall of the tire, so that people can see at a glance. In foreign countries, such as Japan, most drivers have snow tires or use snow chains for the safety of driving in snowy days. After winter, some people who do not want to save the snow tires for use in the coming year will sell them. At present, many people in our country are operating this kind of tire, with the most specifications for mini-cars. They name this kind of tire "landing new", which means: falling (landing) over the ground, but it is still very new. I would like to remind users that when using this kind of tire, they must remove the cleats on the tread, otherwise, it will damage the road, because many of our drivers do not buy this kind of tire for snow use.

Snow tires are wasteful to sell in winter, but they are very occupied and troublesome to preserve. In order to solve the problem that snow tires cannot be used in summer, Japan BS Company has studied several patterns that can be changed. This pattern, as the tire wears, the ground tread will change. First of all, starting from winter, the snow pattern plays an excellent role in snow. After winter, the shoulder cross groove specially designed for snow has worn out, showing the performance of ordinary patterns. In this way, one child and two uses can solve the problem of using the child in snowy days without wasting it. It can be described as well-intentioned. At the same time, it also reflects the professionalism of Japanese businessmen.

Four basic tread patterns and their characteristics:

① Longitudinal groove tread = excellent handling stability/low resistance to rotation against noise/good drainage/not easy to slide laterally.

② transverse groove tread = excellent driving force, braking force, traction force/good wear resistance.

③ longitudinal and transverse tread = both longitudinal and transverse groove tread advantages.

④ Block tread = driving force and braking force are very good.

⑤ Off-road pattern. Off-road patterns are specially designed to adapt to dry, wet, rugged mountain roads and muddy and sandy roads. This pattern tire is just like a pentathlon athlete. It has several specialties and can be used in various harsh environments and climates. Therefore, it is the best tire for young people or off-road vehicles such as Jeep. Off-road tires, in addition to enjoying the same pattern code of each factory, generally have very moving names. Such as Japan Toyo tire MG101 pattern. Because this pattern is very suitable for silt, dry, wet and rugged mountain roads, the factory gave it an ironic and beautiful symbolic name-"Normandy Landing", taking the meaning of the Normandy Landing Campaign commanded by American five-star Admiral Eisenhower during the Second World War (the Normandy Landing was won by other factors, but the tires used by the Allied forces at that time could travel unimpeded on the beach and mountain roads, it was also an important reason for the Allied victory). The excellent off-road performance of this pattern can be imagined from the name given to it.

Tires are classified according to patterns and can be summarized into the above five categories. Therefore, when you know what pattern tires are used in your car, you can go to the tire store to buy the tires you want.

In addition, the pattern of some tires is directional. This pattern mainly considers the grip performance. When installing this tire, pay attention to the installation according to the rolling direction mark. If there is no mark on the tire, touch the ground with the tip of the pattern first. However, if this kind of tires with directional patterns are used on off-road vehicles with equal front and rear wheelbases, the two tires on the front wheels can also be installed in reverse. After the reverse installation, if your car is driving on a muddy road, the front wheels become shallower, reducing the rolling resistance and saving fuel. At the same time, after the front wheels roll over, the road surface is slightly compacted, which is conducive to the passage of the rear wheels. Improve traction. This is the experience summed up in the work, the tire manufacturers do not require this, but you may wish to try, the effect will be very good.

Classification by tire structure

Tires are classified according to their structure and are currently widely used. They can be divided into two categories: bias tires and radial tires.

At present, bias tires are widely used in trucks and vans in China. For example, the 650-16-10 tires used by Beijing 1041 cars and the 750-14-8 tires used by Beilv vans are all bias tires. Radial tires are mostly used in cars. For example, 185/70R13 tires used by Santana cars produced by Shanghai Volkswagen Factory, P215/75R15 tires used by Beijing Cherokee, and 175/70R13 tires used by FAW Jetta cars are radial tires.